The little big Debussy”contains a small collection of pieces including the transcription for wind band of two of the most famous pieces for piano composed by Debussy in 1908; they both were written in the form of ragtime, the musical style considered the first cell of the following jazz tradition. Apart from being two masterpieces themselves, they testify for the first time, by one of the most “cultured “ exponent of the European musical tradition, a particular interest for the Afro-American musical culture, an absolute novelty imported from America. Debussy knew it well thanks to the cabaret where he used to play in Paris. An other aspect shared by the two pieces concerned is that they are addressed to the child-hood: “The little negro” was in fact included in “La boite a joujoux” ballet, set in a toy factory, while “Galliwogg’s Cakewalk” is taken from the famous “Children’s corner” for piano dedicated to his loved daughter Claude-Emma called “Chouchoux” who was nine year old at that time. Its name is due to a particular chubby child representing a small black American called Golliwoog in fashion at that time.